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Regenerative medicine, where the body regenerates or rebuilds itself, is a relatively new and rapidly evolving front in the field of interventional pain management. BPSR is a leader in developing new regenerative products and protocols.

Supporting Scientific Rationale

Are Telomeres the Key to Aging and Cancer


Inside the nucleus of a cell, our genes are arranged along twisted, double-stranded molecules of DNA called chromosomes. At the ends of the chromosomes are stretches of DNA called telomeres, which protect our genetic data, make it possible for cells to divide, and hold some secrets to how we age and get cancer.

Telomeres have been compared with the plastic tips on shoelaces, because they keep chromosome ends from fraying and sticking to each other, which would destroy or scramble an organism’s genetic information.

Yet, each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter. When they get too short, the cell can no longer divide; it becomes inactive or “senescent” or it dies. This shortening process is associated with aging, cancer, and a higher risk of death.

Without telomeres, the main part of the chromosome — the part with genes essential for life — would get shorter each time a cell divides. So telomeres allow cells to divide without losing genes. Cell division is necessary for growing new skin, blood, bone, and other cells.

Without telomeres, chromosome ends could fuse together and corrupt the cell’s genetic blueprint, possibly causing malfunction, cancer, or cell death. Because broken DNA is dangerous, a cell has the ability to sense and repair chromosome damage. Without telomeres, the ends of chromosomes would look like broken DNA, and the cell would try to fix something that wasn’t broken. That also would make them stop dividing and eventually die.

Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells and Their Application in Cell-Based Tissue Regeneration

Int J FertilSteril. 2012 Oct-Dec; 6(3): 147–156.
Published online 2012 Dec 17.
PMCID: PMC3850304


What is Amniotic Fluid?

Amniotic fluid is a protective, nourishing fluid that surrounds the embryo during pregnancy.

In general, the fluid contains proteins, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, enzymes, hormones, pigments, and cells. In humans during the early days of pregnancy amniotic fluid is isotonic but after the keratinization of the embryo’s skin, which usually occurs at week 24 of pregnancy, the fluid become hypotonic.

Cells present in amniotic fluid

Amniotic fluid is in contact with various embryonic components. On one side it is in contact with the embryo’s skin and amniotic membrane, whereas on the other side it is exposed to the embryonic digestive tract and the embryonic urinary and respiratory ducts. Investigations have demonstrated that a variety of embryonic cells, including those from the three embryonic germinal layers, are present in amniotic fluid.

Amniotic fluid cells share some features with MSCs and ESCs regarding the expression of some marker genes. According to research, amniotic fluid stem cells (AF-SCs) express MSC markers CD90, CD105, CD73, CD44, and CD29. Similar to MSCs, they do not express hematopoietic markers such as CD45, CD34, and CD133. With regards to the expression of immunogenic markers, amniotic stem cells behave like MSCs and express MHC II at a very low level.

Amniotic stem cells are similar to ESCs in terms of some markers. SSEA-4, which is expressed in ESCs but not MSCs, is also expressed in AF-SCs. It has been found that the genes of SCF (a pluripotent marker), CK18, and nestin are expressed in fibroblastic cells from amniotic fluid Amniotic stem cells also express vimentin and alkaline phosphatase, which are markers of pluripotent stem cells.

Amniotic fluid is rich in:

  • Growth Factors
  • Cytokines
  • Collagen (all substrates: I, II, IV, V, VI)
  • Fibronectin
  • Laminin
  • Hyaluronic Acid

Cellular components:

  • Pluripotential MSC’s
  • microRNA
  • Associated Exosomes
  • Secretomes
  • Fibroblasts
  • Keratinocytes
  • Epithelial cells


Amniotic Stem Cells and Telomerase Activity

One interesting feature of amniotic stem cells is the presence of telomerase activity. Telomerase is an enzyme that maintains telomere sequences at chromosomal ends. This sequence protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Telomerase activity is a known marker of human pluripotent stem cells, embryonic proliferating cells, and germ cells Since human somatic cells contain no telomerase activity their telomere length becomes progressively shorter after each division. In 1999 it was found that amniotic fluid cells have telomerase activity, which was observed in both cultured and uncultured cells.

Stem cells derived from amniotic fluid: new potentials in regenerative medicine.

Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;18 Suppl 1:17-27.
Cananzi M1, Atala A, De Coppi P.
Author information


Human amniotic fluid cells have been used as a diagnostic tool for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic anomalies for more than 50 years. Evidence provided in the last 5 years, however, suggests that they can also harbor a therapeutic potential for human diseases, as different populations of fetal-derived stem cells have been isolated from amniotic fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells were the first to be described, which possess the higher proliferation and differentiation plasticity of adult mesenchymal stem cells and are able to differentiate towards mesodermal lineages. Amniotic fluid stem cells have more recently been isolated. They represent a novel class of pluripotent stem cells with intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells, as they are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers but do not form tumours when injected in vivo. These characteristics, together with the absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, suggest that stem cells present in the amniotic fluid might be promising candidates for tissue engineering and stem cell therapy of several human disorders.


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A skin substitute based on human amniotic membrane

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Human Placenta-Derived Adherent Cells Prevent Bone loss

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Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic fluid to vascular endothelial cells

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Collection and characterization of amniotic fluid from scheduled C-section deliveries

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Mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into chondrocyte—Like cells

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Secretory profiles and wound healing effects of human amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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Cryopreservation Maintains Functionality of Human iPSC Dopamine Neurons and Rescues Parkinsonian Phenotypes In Vivo

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Reducing inflammation protects stem cells during wound repair

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What makes stem cells into perfect allrounders

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